The Supreme Court’s ruling in the Wong Kim Ark case reaffirmed the right of citizenship for all persons born in the U.S. regardless of parental citizenship, expanding to include minority groups outside of only African Americans. With this ruling, Wong Kim Ark acted as a frontier to birthright citizenship- his case bringing additional precedent to future citizenship policy.

"Birthright citizenship in America is part of something larger: The American longing to sever from history, to be a place of new beginnings."

~ Anand Giridharadas

Official United States citizenship, Wong Kim Ark

Photo portrait, Wong Kim Ark

"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside."

~ Citizenship Clause; Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1

                   Wong Kim Ark's signature                    Wong Kim Ark

Chinese immigrants, the Tape family, California, 1884

Japanese, German and Italian heritage children, pledge of allegiance, 1942

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